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ⓘ Mtaguso wa Yerusalemu au Mtaguso wa mitume ni jina linalotumika kwa mkutano uliofanyika mwaka 49 au 50 ili kuondoa tofauti za misimamo kati ya Wakristo kuhusu w ..




Mtaguso wa Yerusalemu
                                     

ⓘ Mtaguso wa Yerusalemu

Mtaguso wa Yerusalemu au Mtaguso wa mitume ni jina linalotumika kwa mkutano uliofanyika mwaka 49 au 50 ili kuondoa tofauti za misimamo kati ya Wakristo kuhusu wajibu wa kutekeleza Torati kwa waongofu waliotokea upagani.

Ni kwamba Mtume Paulo na Mtume Barnaba waliporudi Antiokia kutoka safari yao ya kwanza ya kimisionari walipaswa kupambana na Wakristo wa Kiyahudi kuhusu uwezekano wa mataifa kuokoka pasipo kutahiriwa.

Hatimaye suala likapelekwa Yerusalemu kwa Kanisa mama. Baada ya majadiliano marefu Mtume Petro akatoa neno la mwisho kwamba Wapagani wanaomuamini Yesu Kristo wasitwishwe mzigo usiobebeka wa kufuata sheria za Kiyahudi Mdo 15:1-12.

Katika Gal 2:1-10 Paulo pia ametuachia kumbukumbu ya mtaguso huo akisisitiza kuwa mitume waliokuwepo Yakobo Mdogo, Petro na Yohane walitambua rasmi karama ya kimisionari ya kwake na ya Barnaba na uhalali wake, wakiwaomba tu wachangishe pesa kati ya Wakristo wa mbali kwa ajili ya wenzao wa Yerusalemu wenye hali ngumu. Hiyo ilikuwa namna mpya ya kutekeleza upendo wa kidugu na kudumisha umoja wa Kanisa baada ya uenezi wake.

                                     

1. Marejeo

  • Westerholm, Stephen. Perspectives Old and New on Paul: The "Lutheran" Paul and His Critics 2003 ISBN 0-8028-4809-5
  • Dunn, James D.G. The Theology of Pauls Letter to the Galatians 1993 ISBN 0-521-35953-8
  • Bruce, Frederick Fyvie. Men and movements in the primitive church: Studies in early non-Pauline Christianity
  • Sanders, E.P. Paul and Palestinian Judaism: A Comparison of Patterns of Religion 1977 ISBN 0-8006-1899-8
  • Gaus, Andy. The Unvarnished New Testament 1991 ISBN 0-933999-99-2
  • Dunn, James D.G. "The Incident at Antioch Kigezo:Bibleref," JSNT 18, 1983, pg 95–122
  • Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities: The Battle for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew 2003
  • Sanders, E.P. Jesus and Judaism, Fortress Press, 1987, ISBN 0-8006-2061-5
  • Sanders, E.P. Paul the Law and the Jewish People 1983
  • Mount, Christopher N. Pauline Christianity: Luke-Acts and the Legacy of Paul 2001
  • Dunn, James D.G. Jesus, Paul and the Law, ISBN 0-664-25095-5
  • Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament. Anchor Bible Series, 1997. ISBN 0-385-24767-2.
  • Maccoby, Hyam. The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity. New York: Harper & Row, 1986. ISBN 0-06-015582-5.
  • Kim, Seyoon Paul and the New Perspective: Second Thoughts on the Origin of Pauls Gospel 2001 ISBN 0-8028-4974-1
  • Dunn, James D.G. The Theology of Paul the Apostle Eerdmans 1997 ISBN 0-8028-3844-8
  • Badenas, Robert. Christ the End of the Law, Romans 10.4 in Pauline Perspective, 1985 ISBN 0-905774-93-0
  • Bruce, Frederick Fyvie. Peter, Stephen, James and John: Studies in Early Non-Pauline Christianity
  • Elsner, Jas. Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph: Oxford History of Early Non-Pauline Christianity 1998 ISBN 0-19-284201-3
  • Wright, N.T. What Saint Paul Really Said: Was Paul of Tarsus the Real Founder of Christianity? 1997 ISBN 0-8028-4445-6
  • Ropes, J.H., The Text of Acts, Vol. III; The Beginnings of Christianity: Part I: The Acts of the Apostles, London: MacMillan & Co., Ltd., 1926
  • Eisenman, Robert, 1997. James the Brother of Jesus: The Key to Unlocking the Secrets of Early Christianity and the Dead Sea Scrolls. ISBN 0-670-86932-5 A cultural historians dissenting view based on contemporary texts.
  • MacDonald, Dennis Ronald, 1983. The Legend and the Apostle: The Battle for Paul in Story and Canon Philadelphia: Westminster Press.
  • Metzger, Bruce M. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament 1975 ISBN 3-438-06010-8
  • Telfer, W. The Didache and the Apostolic Synod of Antioch The Journal of Theological Studies, 1939, pp. 133–146, 258–271
  • Clark, A.C. The Acts of the Apostles
  • Simon, Marcel. The Apostolic Decree and its Setting in the Ancient Church. Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, LII 1969–70, pp. 437–460
                                     

2. Viungo vya nje

  • Apostolic Constitutions
  • Jewish Encyclopedia: Didascalia
  • Jewish Antiquities 20 Archived Septemba 7, 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  • Jewish Encyclopedia: Hillel v. Shammai
  • Catholic Encyclopedia: Apostolic Canons
  • Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge: Apostolic Council at Jerusalem
  • NA26 Greek Acts 15 Archived Mei 30, 2019 at the Wayback Machine.
  • The eJournal:The Gentile mission and the Tabernacle of David
  • Gentiles and circumcision
  • Catholic Encyclopedia: Judaizers
  • New Perspective on Paul
  • Early Christian Writings
  • All you want to know about councils and early Christians
  • Didache
  • Didascalia Apostolorum
                                     
  • Mtaguso wa pili wa Nisea uliitishwa na malkia Irene wa Bizanti mwaka 787, ili kujadili matumizi ya picha takatifu na sanamu katika Ukristo, kutokana na
  • Mtaguso wa kwanza wa Konstantinopoli ndio wa pili katika orodha ya mitaguso ya kiekumene ya Kanisa wakati wa mababu wake. Uliitishwa na kaisari Theodosius
  • Atanasi wa Yerusalemu alifariki Yerusalemu Palestina, 452 hivi alikuwa shemasi wa jimbo la huko. Aliteswa vikali sana na mmonaki Theodosi, akafa kwa
  • Mtaguso wa nne wa Konstantinopoli ni jina linalotumiwa na Wakristo kwa namna tofauti, kadiri wanavyokubali au kukataa uhalali na uekumeni wa mitaguso fulanifulani
  • Mtaguso wa Vienne 1311 - 1312 unahesabiwa na Kanisa Katoliki kama mtaguso mkuu wa kumi na tano. Mtaguso huu ulifanyika Vienne Ufaransa baada ya mashindano
  • Mtaguso wa Efeso 431 unahesabiwa na Wakristo walio wengi kama mtaguso mkuu wa tatu. Ulifanyika Efeso katika mkoa wa Asia Ndogo, kwa amri ya kaisari
  • Mtaguso wa Trento uliofanyika kwa kwikwi kuanzia mwaka 1545 hadi 1563 unahesabiwa na Kanisa Katoliki kuwa mtaguso mkuu wa kumi na tisa. Miaka hiyo maaskofu
  • Mtaguso wa pili wa Konstantinopoli uliitishwa na kaisari Justiniani I mwaka 553 kwa lengo la kupatanisha tena na Kanisa Katoliki Wakristo wote wa Misri
  • alipofariki, Sirili aliweza kurejea Yerusalemu na kurudisha umoja na amani kati ya waamini. Mwaka 381 alishiriki Mtaguso I wa Konstantinopoli akitoa mchango
  • Makari wa Yerusalemu alifariki 335 hivi alikuwa askofu wa Yerusalemu kuanzia mwaka 312 hadi kifo chake. Alishiriki Mtaguso wa kwanza wa Nisea 325 na

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Mtaguso ni mkutano wa viongozi wa Kanisa hasa Baba Mtakatifu, Makardinali, Wa kwanza ulikuwa ule wa Mitume uliofanyika Yerusalemu ili. Uzi maalum wa kupeana Likes: Comment chochote upate Like. Mabishano kuhusu kutahiriwa, na mtaguso wa kwanza wa Mitume. kwenda Yerusalemu kwa mitume na wazee kwa habari ya swali hilo.


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