Back

ⓘ Matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti ni muda wa mifululizo ya matukio ambayo yalitokea katika karne ya 16 katika Ukristo, hasa miaka 1517-1555, yaani kuanzia uenezi wa ..




Matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti
                                     

ⓘ Matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti

Matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti ni muda wa mifululizo ya matukio ambayo yalitokea katika karne ya 16 katika Ukristo, hasa miaka 1517-1555, yaani kuanzia uenezi wa hoja 95 za Martin Luther hadi amani ya Augsburg.

Kati yake chanzo, yaani mabishano ya Kikanisa yaliyosababishwa na teolojia ya Luther, yalichanganyikana mapema na siasa, uchumi na utamaduni, kutokana na hali halisi ya wakati huo, mbali kuliko mwenyewe alivyofikiri.

                                     

1. Mizizi

Tangu karne za nyuma Wakristo wengi wa kila ngazi, kama vile watakatifu na Erasmus wa Rotterdam, waliona uhitaji wa kurekebisha hali ya Kanisa Katoliki huko Ulaya, lakini hoja na juhudi zao hazikutosha.

Kati ya ukosoaji muhimu kuna haya yafuatayo:

  • Baadhi ya mambo hayo yana uhusiano na yale yaliyoandikwa katika Biblia kitabu kitakatifu cha Kikristo. Wachungaji peke yao ndio waliokuwa wanaweza kukisoma, kwa hiyo watu wa kawaida hawakujua mambo mengi kuhusu dini yao.
  • Kanisa lilionekana kuuza misamaha ya dhambi ili kupata fedha za kujengea Basilika la Mt. Petro huko Vatikani. Hili lilitazamwa kama kwamba matajiri wangeweza kununua tiketi za kuenda peponi wakati maskini wasingeweza - kinyume kabisa na Biblia inavyosema.
  • Watu wengi walikuwa hawaelewi ibada kwa sababu zilikuwa zikifuata vitabu vilivyoandikwa kwa lugha ya Kilatini, ambayo haikutumiwa tena katika maisha ya kawaida. Wachungaji tofauti walieleza mambo tofauti.
                                     

2. Maana ya matengenezo

Hapo kale neno hilo kwa Kilatini reformatio lilihusu badiliko la hali mbaya iliyopo ili kurudia hali nzuri zaidi ya awali. Katika Karne za Kati lilitumika mara nyingi kwa marekebisho ya umonaki. Katika karne ya 15 haja ya urekebisho ilionekana wazi si tu kwa mashirika ya kitawa bali kwa Kanisa lote. Hasa Mtaguso wa Konstanz 1414-1418 ulidai kabisa ufanyike "katika kichwa na katika viungo". Lakini kwa jumla mitaguso yote ya Karne za Kati na mikutano mingi ya Bunge la Dola la Ujerumani ililenga urekebisho wa Kanisa.

Kwa kweli Karne za Kati zilikuwa na mchanganyiko wa mambo yaliyopingana: ibada za nje tu na za dhati kabisa; teolojia iliyoelekeza kutenda kwa msingi wa nipe nikupe na hakika ya kwamba binadamu anategemea kabisa neema ya Mungu; kutojali wajibu hata upande wa viongozi wa Kanisa na marekebisho safi ya mashirika ya kitawa.

Karne ya 15 ilikuwa kipindi cha umotomoto wa pekee katika Kanisa, ambapo walei wengi zaidi na zaidi walipata elimu nzuri, hivyo walitamani hotuba bora na mafundisho ya kuwasaidia kuishi Kikristo zaidi. Luther aliitikia haja hizo zilizomgusa sana kama mtu wa wakati wake.

Luther alitumia kwa nadra neno matengenezo, lakini likaja kuwa jina la kawaida la matukio yale mengi ya miaka 1517 - 1555.

                                     

3. Matukio

Watu kama Martin Luther, halafu John Calvin na wengineo, waliyaona hayo, wakawa wanayapinga, lakini pia walibadilisha mafundisho mengi ya Kanisa, kila mmoja namna yake, na kupelekea kuligawanya katika idadi kubwa ya madhehebu ya Kiprotestanti.

Kutokana na hayo tena yalizuka vita vingi Ulaya kwa muda mrefu ambavyo viliishia kufanya watu wachukie dini. Pia utaifa na hamu ya watawala kujitwalia mali ya Kanisa vilichangia sana.

Martin Luther alikuwa mtu wa kwanza kutafsiri Biblia kwa Kijerumani. Aliweza hata kuchapisha baadhi ya nakala, kwa sababu miaka ya nyuma Johannes Gutenberg alikuwa amebuni uchapishaji. Hivyo alitoa idadi ndogo ya nakala imekisiwa kuwa 50-100 kwa kiasi kidogo kabisa.

Matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti yaliwachoma sana Wakatoliki na kupelekea kuongeza juhudi za urekebisho wa Kanisa lao, zikiwa ni pamoja na kurudisha wengi ndani yake.

Hatimaye Ulaya Magharibi ilibaki imegawanyika: upande wa Kusini wakazi waliendelea kuwa Wakatoliki, kumbe Kaskazini wengi wakawa Waprotestanti. Mahusiano hayakuwa mazuri hadi karne ya 20 ilipoanza ekumeni.



                                     

4. Tathmini

Umoja halisi wa Kanisa unaweza kupatikana tu katika ukweli wa Injili ya Yesu Kristo. Ni habari mbaya kwamba katika karne ya 16 kuupigania ukweli huo kulivunja umoja wa Ukristo wa magharibi. Haiwezekani kushangilia mafarakano ya wafuasi wa Yesu.

Yale ya karne hiyo yalitokana na kuelewa tofauti kweli za imani ya Kikristo na yalikuwa na ukali kwa sababu pande zote zilisadiki kwamba kushikilia kwa usahihi ufunuo wa Mungu ni suala la wokovu wa milele. Kwa mfano, Martin Luther aliandika, "Sikubali mafundisho yangu yahukumiwe na yeyote, hata kama ni malaika. Asiyekubali mafundisho yangu hawezi kufikia wokovu".

Pamoja na hayo, mambo mengi yalichangia farakano, si teolojia tu, bali siasa, uchumi, jamii na utamaduni. Wakati huo mara nyingi hoja za imani na malengo ya kisiasa vilichanganyikana: wanasiasa wengi walitumia hoja hizo ili kufikia malengo ya kiutawala, na vilevile wanateolojia walitumia siasa kutetea mafundisho yao ili kuvuta watu. Ndiyo sababu Luther alichorwa kama shujaa wa taifa la Ujerumani.

Mara nyingi pande zote zilipotosha maana ya wapinzani na kuwachora vibaya wakivunja amri ya nane inayokataza uongo dhidi ya jirani. Hata waliojitahidi kusema ukweli tu juu ya wengine kwa kawaida hawakujitahidi vya kutosha kuelewa msimamo wao na kuona kwamba pengine si mbaya zaidi. Kila mmoja alitaka ushindi akachangia ugomvi uliorithishwa kwa vizazi vilivyofuata.

Hivyo, kilichosababisha zaidi farakano si masuala ya imani yaliyojadiliwa na Waprotestanti, bali lawama zao dhidi ya hali mbaya ya Kanisa la wakati huo iliyokuwa inakera wengi na kuwaelekeza kuunga mkono urekebisho.

                                     

5. Marejeo

  • Estep, William R 1986. Renaissance & Reformation. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-0050-5.
  • Spalding, Martin 2010. The History of the Protestant Reformation; In Germany and Switzerland, and in England, Ireland, Scotland, the Netherlands, France, and Northern Europe. General Books LLC.
  • Cameron, Euan 2012. The European Reformation, 2nd, Oxford University Press.
  • Simon, Edith 1966. Great Ages of Man: The Reformation. Time-Life Books, 120–121. ISBN 0-662-27820-8., popular and well-illustrated
  • Kelly, Joseph F 2009. The Ecumenical Councils of the Catholic Church: A History. Collegeville, MN: Michael Glazier/Liturgical Press, 226. ISBN 978-0-8146-5376-0.
  • Brakke, Mary Jo 2009. Introduction to Christianity, 4th, Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 92–93. ISBN 978-0-495-09726-6.
                                     

5.1. Marejeo Marejeo ya kitaalamu

Kwa mpangilio wa kitarehe

  • Hillerbrand, Hans J., et al. eds. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation 1996 vol. 1:296 pp., vol. 2:506 pp., vol. 3: 491 pp., vol. 4:484 pp., ISBN 0-19-506493-3
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav 1984. Reformation of Church and Dogma 1300–1700. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-65377-3. focuses on religious teachings
  • Kirsch, J.P. 1913. "The Reformation". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Catholic view.
  • MacCulloch, Diarmaid. The Reformation: A History. New York: Penguin 2003; 864pp. influential recent synthesis
  • Froom, LeRoy 1948. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers Kigezo:DjVulink and PDF 2, 243–244. Retrieved on 2014-06-17.
  • Elton, G.R., ed. New Cambridge Modern History Volume II The Reformation 1520-59 1958, 684pp
  • Swanson, Guy E. Religion and Regime: a Sociological Account of the Reformation. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 1967. x, 295 p.
  • Braaten, Carl E. and Robert W. Jenson. The Catholicity of the Reformation. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996. ISBN 0-8028-4220-8.
  • Froom, LeRoy 1950. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers Kigezo:DjVulink and PDF 1. Retrieved on 2014-06-17.
  • Bainton, Roland 1952. The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century. Boston: The Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-1301-3.
  • Spitz, Lewis William. The Protestant Reformation: 1517-1559 2003
  • Gonzales, Justo. The Story of Christianity, Vol. 2: The Reformation to the Present Day. San Francisco: Harper, 1985. ISBN 0-06-063316-6.
  • Christianity: The First Three Thousand Years 2011, pp 604–714, shorter version
  • Elton, Geoffrey R. and Andrew Pettegree, eds. Reformation Europe: 1517-1559 1999 excerpt and text search
  • Spitz, Lewis W. The Renaissance and Reformation Movements: Volume I, The Renaissance. Revised Edition. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1987. ISBN 0-570-03818-9; The Renaissance and Reformation Movements: Volume II, The Reformation. 2nd ed. Concordia Publishing House, 1987. ISBN 0-570-03819-7.
  • Hsia, R. Po-chia, ed. A Companion to the Reformation World 2006 excerpt and text search
  • Hendrix, Scott H. Recultivating the Vineyard: The Reformation Agendas of Christianization Westminster John Knox Press, 2004. excerpt and text search
  • Payton Jr. James R. Getting the Reformation Wrong: Correcting Some Misunderstandings IVP Academic, 2010 excerpt and text search
  • Bagchi, David, and David C. Steinmetz, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Reformation Theology 2004 289 pp.
  • Collinson, Patrick. The Reformation: A History 2006 excerpt and text search
  • Marshall, Peter. The Reformation: A Very Short Introduction 2009 excerpt and text search
  • Hillerbrand, Hans J. The Protestant Reformation 2nd ed. 2009 excerpt and text search
  • Naphy, William G. 2007. The Protestant Revolution: From Martin Luther to Martin Luther King Jr. BBC Books. ISBN 978-0-563-53920-9.
  • Lindberg, Carter. The European Reformations 2nd ed. 2009 472pp, comprehensive introduction
  • Balserak, Jon. John Calvin as Sixteenth-Century Prophet Oxford University Press, 2014 excerpt and text search
  • Appold, Kenneth G. The Reformation: A Brief History 2011 217pp


                                     

5.2. Marejeo Tafsiri za vyanzo

  • Luther, Martin Luthers Correspondence and Other Contemporary Letters, 2 vols., tr. and ed. by Preserved Smith, Charles Michael Jacobs, The Lutheran Publication Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 1913, 1918. vol.2 1521–1530 from Google Books. Reprint of Vol.1, Wipf & Stock Publishers March 2006. ISBN 1-59752-601-0.
  • Janz, Denis, ed. A Reformation Reader: Primary Texts With Introductions 2008 excerpt and text search
  • Spitz, Lewis W. The Protestant Reformation: Major Documents. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1997. ISBN 0-570-04993-8
  • Fosdick, Harry Emerson, ed. Great Voices of the Reformation: an Anthology, ed., with an introd. and commentaries, by Harry Emerson Fosdick. New York: Modern Library, 1952. xxx, 546 p.
                                     

5.3. Marejeo Vitabu vya historia

  • Marnef, Guido. "Belgian and Dutch Post-war Historiography on the Protestant and Catholic Reformation in the Netherlands," Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 2009 Vol. 100, pp 271–292.
  • Haigh, Christopher. "Catholicism in Early Modern England: Bossy and Beyond," "Catholicism in Early Modern England: Bossy and Beyond, 45, no. 2 2002: 481–94. 2002 45#2 pp 481–94.
  • Bradshaw, Brendan. "The Reformation and the Counter-Reformation," History Today 1983 33#11 pp 42–45.
  • Haigh, Christopher. "The recent historiography of the English Reformation." The Historical Journal 1982 25#4 pp 995–1007.
  • MacCulloch, Diarmaid; Laven, Mary; Duffy, Eamon. "Recent Trends in the Study of Christianity in Sixteenth-Century Europe," Renaissance Quarterly 2006 59#3 pp 697–731. in JSTOR
  • Heininen, Simo / Czaika, Otfried: Wittenberg Influences on the Reformation in Scandinavia, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2010, retrieved: 17 December 2012.
  • Hsia, R. Po-chia. "Reformation on the Continent: Approaches Old and New," Journal of Religious History 2004 28#2 pp 162–170.
  • Dickens, A. G. and John M. Tonkin, eds. The Reformation in Historical Thought Harvard University Press, 1985
  • Fritze, Ronald H. "The English Reformation: Obedience, Destruction and Cultural Adaptation," Journal of Ecclesiastical History 2005 56#1 pp 107–15.
  • Scott, Tom. "The Common People in the German Reformation," The Historical Journal 1991 24#1 pp 183–92 in JSTOR
  • MacCulloch, Diarmaid. "The Impact of the English Reformation," The Historical Journal 1995 38#1 pp 151–53
  • Bates, Lucy. "The Limits of Possibility in Englands Long Reformation," Historical Journal 2010 53#4 pp 1049–1070.
  • Hsia, R. Po-Chia. "The Myth of the Commune: Recent Historiography on City and Reformation in Germany." Central European History 1987 20#3 pp 203–215. in JSTOR
  • Scott, Tom. "The Reformation between Deconstruction and Reconstruction: Reflections on Recent Writings on the German Reformation," German History 2008 26#3 pp 406–422
  • Nieden, Marcel: The Wittenberg Reformation as a Media Event, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2012, retrieved: 17 December 2012.
  • Haigh, Christopher. "The English Reformation: A Premature Birth, a Difficult Labour and a Sickly Child," The Historical Journal 1990 33#2 pp 449–59
  • Walsham, Alexandra. "The Reformation and The Disenchantment of the World Reassessed." Historical Journal 2008 51#2 pp 497–528; focus on claims about the Reformation origins of modernity
  • De Boer, Wietse. "An Uneasy Reunion The Catholic World in Reformation Studies," Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 2009, Vol. 100, p366-387.
  • Wiesner-Hanks, Merry. "Gender and the Reformation," Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 2009, Vol. 100, pp 350–365.
  • Brady, Jr., Thomas A. "Peoples Religions in Reformation Europe," The Historical Journal 1991 24#1 pp173–82
  • Karant-Nunn, Susan C. "Changing Ones Mind: Transformations in Reformation History from a Germanists Perspective," Renaissance Quarterly 2005 58#2 pp 1101–1127. in JSTOR
  • Dixon, C. Scott. Contesting the Reformation 2012 excerpt and text search
  • Marshall, Peter. "Redefining the English Reformation," Journal of British Studies 2009 48#3 pp. 564–586 in JSTOR
  • Menchi, Silvana Seidel. "The Age of Reformation and Counter-Reformation in Italian Historiography, 1939-2009," Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 2009 Vol. 100, pp 193–217.
                                     

6. Viungo vya nje

  • 16th Century Reformation Reading Room: Extensive online resources, Tyndale Seminary
  • Tathmini ya pamoja iliyofanywa na Wakatoliki na Walutheri mwaka 2013
  • Internet Archive of Related Texts and Documents
  • The Reformation Collection at the Library of Congress
                                     
  • kikubwa chini ya watawala wao wa kikabaila. Miaka 100 kabla ya vita matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti yalienea katika Ujerumani na sehemu ya madola ilipokea
  • namna ya majibizano, yaani maswali yakifuatwa na majibu ambayo yanafaa kukaririwa. Wakati wa matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti katekesimo ndogo ya Martin
  • Lakini Norway iliendela kuwa chini ya Denmark hadi mwaka 1814. Uswidi ulijiunga na Matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti na kanisa la Kilutheri likawa dini rasmi
  • Kiroma. Katika karne ya 16 maeneo ya Ujerumani kaskazini yakawa kiini cha Matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti katika Ukristo. Baada ya Dola Takatifu kusambaratika
  • sana, la sivyo pengine Matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti yasingetokea. Ukweli ni kwamba Martin Luther aliyaanzisha miezi sita tu baada ya mtaguso kwisha. Mtaguso
  • kuanzia matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti karne ya 16 Jibu lilitolewa hasa na urekebisho wa Kikatoliki na Mtaguso wa Trento. Kuanzia karne ya 20, juhudi
  • Ukristo wa mashariki. Ni suala hilo lililosababisha Matengenezo ya kiprotestanti katika karne ya 16 na linaendelea kujadiliwa sana katika nchi zilipokea
  • madhehebu ya Kiprotestanti Huitwa la magharibi kwa sababu asili yake ni upande wa magharibi wa Bahari ya Kati yakiwa na mwelekeo tofauti na ile ya Makanisa
  • 787 Makanisa ya Waorthodoksi wa mashariki hukubali mitaguso mitatu ya kwanza tu. Madhehebu mengine ya Kiprotestanti yanakubali maazimio ya mitaguso kadiri
  • waliovutwa zaidi na matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti na kutojali sana urithi wa kale wanaitwa Low Church Kanisa la chini Kwa mambo ya nje wale wa juu
  • wakadhulumiwa hasa katika karne ya 17. Katikati 1532 walijiunga na Matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti na kukubali mafundisho ya Yohane Calvin. Kwa sasa wako

Users also searched:

...

Habari kutoka Soma Biblia.

2015 2016, Serikali imepanga kufanya matengenezo ya kilometa 42 kwa Kiprotestanti CCT, Waheshimiwa Wabunge ambao wako chini ya. KAULI RASMI YA PAMOJA YA FUNGAMANO LA MAKANISA YA. Sehemu ya desturi hizi ni kupamba mti wa Krismasi ambao kazi ya kufanya matengenezo ya Wakristo wenye imani ya Kiprotestanti ambapo. 1 BUNGE LA TANZANIA MAJADILIANO YA BUNGE. KWAYA YA KANISA LA KINONDONI SDA IKIHUDUMU KATIKA MAKAMBI YALIYOFANYIKA MWAKA 2013 KATIKA MTAA WA KINONDONI. Yesu ni Fidia kwa tafsiri rahisi neno fidia lina maana ya gharama ambayo maalumu kwa ajili ya madhehebu ya kiprotestanti na hasa Kanisa la Kilutheri lanzo la kanisa lake, tendo lililochangia sana kwa Matengenezo.


...