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ⓘ Kulturkampf ni jina la ushindani kati ya serikali za nchi kadhaa, hasa Dola la Ujerumani chini ya chansela Otto von Bismarck, na Kanisa Katoliki katika karne ya ..




Kulturkampf
                                     

ⓘ Kulturkampf

Kulturkampf ni jina la ushindani kati ya serikali za nchi kadhaa, hasa Dola la Ujerumani chini ya chansela Otto von Bismarck, na Kanisa Katoliki katika karne ya 19.

Serikali nyingi zilitaka kushika mamlaka zote juu ya raia zake, wakati Papa na maaskofu hawakupenda kupotewa na athira zao za muda mrefu juu ya waumini katika masuala ya kijamii.

Ushindani huo ulipata nguvu ya pekee Ujerumani baada ya nchi hiyo kuunganishwa chini ya Prussia na kutenga Austria. Hapo dola jipya lilijikuta kuwa na asilimia ya Waprotestanti kubwa kuliko awali ambapo Wakatoliki walikuwa wengiwengi. Hasa Prussia iliyoongoza dola hilo ilikuwa ya Kiprotestanti kabisa.

Mgongano ulisababisha serikali ya Prussia na ya Dola lote kutunga mfululizo sheria za kubana Kanisa Katoliki, na pia kufunga maaskofu wake.

                                     

1. Viungo vya nje

  • Kulturkampf Now and Then Archived Novemba 8, 2005 at the Wayback Machine. 13-paged essay in pdf by a Professor of the United States Air Force Academy
  • Bismarck’s Domestic Polices 1871 -1890 Kulturkampf in the context of Bismarcks entire domestic policies, by a head of history at Catholic University School in Dublin
  • Bismarck on the purpose of the Kulturkampf Speech in the Prussian House of Lords, March 10, 1873
  • Founding Manifesto of the Protestant League 1887; Statistics on Membership 1887-1913 English translation a German anti-Catholic propaganda organization that became active after the Kulturkampf
  • "Bismarck’s Failure: the Kulturkampf" long description
  • Kulturkampf: Bibliography by LitDok East-Central Europe Herder-Institut Marburg
  • Ludwig Windthorst Speaks in the Prussian Parliament 1873 speech of Ludwig Windthorst following its analysis
                                     
  • tena heshima, lakini siasa iliendelea kuwa dhidi yao. Kilele chake ni Kulturkampf kwa Kijerumani: vita vya utamaduni iliyotangazwa na Chansela Bismarck

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Dalili ya Kuvunjwa kwa CHADEMA na kugawana mali kikatiba.

Formed in 1870, it battled the Kulturkampf which the Prussian government launched to reduce the power of the Catholic Church. It soon won a.


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